School of Psychology Contacts & people

Professor Greg Maio - BSc York, MA PhD Western Ontario

Professor

Research group:
Social & environmental psychology
Email:
Maio@cardiff.ac.uk
Telephone:
+44(0)29 2087 6260
Location:
Tower Building, Park Place

Research summary

I am interested in social values (e.g., equality, freedom, helpfulness), attitudes, and emotional processes. I am especially interested in examining psychological connections between values, attitudes, and behaviour.

Teaching summary

I am currently teaching introductory psychology (social component), introductory social psychology, and attitudes and attitude change. I have taught undergraduate and postgraduate statistics, social psychological theory, and personality.

Selected publications (2008 onwards)

2015

Maio, G. R. (2015). The psychology of human values. European Monographs in Social Psychology. London: Psychology Press.

2013

Evans, L., Maio, G. R., Corner, A. J., Hodgetts, C. J., Ahmed, S. and Hahn, U. (2013). Self-Interest and pro-environmental behaviour [Letter]Nature Climate Change, 3(2), 122-125. (10.1038/nclimate1662)

Gebauer, J. E., Maio, G. R. and Pakizeh, A. (2013). Feeling Torn When Everything Seems Right: Semantic Incongruence Causes Felt AmbivalencePersonality and Social Psychology Bulletin, 39(6), 777-791. (10.1177/0146167213481679) pdf

2012

Appel, M., Gnambs, T. and Maio, G. R. (2012). A Short Measure of the Need for AffectJournal of Personality Assessment, 94(4), 418-426. (10.1080/00223891.2012.666921)

Gebauer, J. E., Sedikides, C., Verplanken, B. and Maio, G. R. (2012). Communal narcissismJournal of Personality and Social Psychology, 103(5), 854-878. (10.1037/a0029629 )

Gebauer, J. E. and Maio, G. R. (2012). The Need to Belong Can Motivate Belief in GodJournal of Personality, 80(2), 465-501. (10.1111/j.1467-6494.2011.00730.x)

Greenland, K., Xenias, D. and Maio, G. R. (2012). Intergroup anxiety from the self and other: evidence from self-report, physiological effects, and real interactionsEuropean Journal of Social Psychology, 42(2), 150-163. (10.1002/ejsp.867)

Haddock, G. and Maio, G. R. (2012). Attitudes. In: Hewstone, M., Stroebe, W. and Jonas, K. eds. An Introduction to Social Psychology (5th ed.). London: Blackwell, pp. 171-200.

Haddock, G. and Maio, G. R. (2012). The Psychology of Attitudes (4 volume set). London: Sage.

Maio, G. R., Olson, J. M. and Cheung, I. (2012). Attitudes in social behavior. In: Weiner, I., Tennen, H. and Suls, J. eds. Personality and Social Psychology (2nd ed.). Chichester: Wiley, pp. 275-304.

2011

Maio, G. R. (2011). Don’t mind the gap between values and action. Discussion Paper. Common Cause, Available at: http://valuesandframes.org/download/briefings/Value-Action%20Gap%20|%20Common%20Cause%20Briefing.pdf

Maio, G. R. (2011). Why the famous value-action gap is smaller than you think [Blog entry]Green Alliance Blog, 2011(8 Aug)

Schermer, J. A., Vernon, P. A., Maio, G. R. and Jang, K. L. (2011). A Behavior Genetic Study of the Connection Between Social Values and PersonalityTwin Research and Human Genetics, 14(3), 233-239. (10.1375/twin.14.3.233) pdf

Sedek, G., Piber-Dabrowska, K., Maio, G. R. and Von Hecker, U. (2011). Individual differences in prejudice and associative versus rule-based forms of transitive reasoningEuropean Journal of Social Psychology, 41(7), 853-865. (10.1002/ejsp.830)

2010

Maio, G. R., Haddock, G., Spears, R. and Manstead, A. S. R. (2010). Attitudes and intergroup relations. In: Dovidio, J. et al. eds. SAGE Handbook of Prejudice, Stereotyping and Discrimination. London: Sage, pp. 261-275.

Maio, G. R. (2010). Mental representations of social values. In: Zanna, M. ed. Advances in Experimental Social Psychology, Vol 42. Amsterdam: Elsevier, pp. 1-43. (10.1016/S0065-2601(10)42001-8)

Maio, G. R. and Haddock, G. (2010). The psychology of attitudes and attitude change. SAGE Social Psychology Program. London: Sage.

Souchon, N., Cabagno, G., Traclet, A., Dosseville, F., Livingstone, A. G., Jones, M. and Maio, G. R. (2010). Referees' Decision-making and Player Gender: The Moderating Role of the Type of SituationJournal of Applied Sport Psychology, 22(1), 1-16. (10.1080/10413200903250476)

Xenias, D., Greenland, K. and Maio, G. R. (2010). An investigation on promotion focus intervention for intergroup anxiety. Presented at: BPS Social Psychology Section Annual Conference, Winchester, UK, 7-9 September 2010.

2009

Cuddy, A. et al. (2009). Stereotype content model across cultures: towards universal similarities and some differencesBritish Journal of Social Psychology, 48(1), 1-33. (10.1348/014466608X314935)

Luke, M. A. and Maio, G. R. (2009). Oh the humanity! Humanity-esteem and its social importanceJournal of Research in Personality, 43(4), 586-601. (10.1016/j.jrp.2009.03.001)

Maio, G. R., Hahn, U., Frost, J. M. and Cheung, W. (2009). Applying the value of equality unequally: Effects of value instantiations that vary in typicalityJournal of Personality and Social Psychology, 97(4), 598-614. (10.1037/a0016683)

Maio, G. R., Pakizeh, A., Cheung, W. and Rees, K. J. (2009). Changing, priming, and acting on values: Effects via motivational relations in a circular modelJournal of Personality and Social Psychology, 97(4), 699-715. (10.1037/a0016420)

Souchon, N., Cabagno, G., Rascle, O., Traclet, A., Dosseville, F. and Maio, G. R. (2009). Referees' Decision Making about Transgressions: The Influence of Player Gender at the Highest National LevelPsychology of Women Quarterly, 33(4), 445-452. (10.1111/j.1471-6402.2009.01522.x)

Souchon, N., Cabagno, G., Traclet, A., Trouilloud, D. and Maio, G. R. (2009). Referees' use of heuristics: The moderating impact of standard of competitionJournal of Sports Sciences, 27(7), 695-700. (10.1080/02640410902874729)

Watt, S. E., Maio, G. R., Haddock, G. and Johnson, B. T. (2009). Attitude functions in persuasion: matching, involvement, self-affirmation, and hierarchy. In: Crano, W. and Prislin, R. eds. Attitudes and persuasion. New York: Psychology Press, pp. 189-213.

2008

Gebauer, J. E., Riketta, M., Broemer, P. and Maio, G. R. (2008). "How much do you like your name?" An implicit measure of global self-esteemJournal of Experimental Social Psychology, 44(5), 1346-1354. (10.1016/j.jesp.2008.03.016 )

Gebauer, J. E., Riketta, M., Broemer, P. and Maio, G. R. (2008). Pleasure and pressure based prosocial motivation: Divergent relations to subjective well-beingJournal of Research in Personality, 42(2), 399-420. (10.1016/j.jrp.2007.07.002 )

Haddock, G. and Maio, G. R. (2008). Attitudes: content, structure and functions. In: Hewstone, M., Stroebe, W. and Jonas, K. eds. Introduction to social psychology: a European perspective. 4th ed.. Oxford: Blackwell, pp. 112-133.

Haddock, G., Maio, G. R., Arnold, K. and Huskinson, T. (2008). Should persuasion be affective or cognitive? The moderating effects of need for affect and need for cognitionPersonality and Social Psychology Bulletin, 34(6), 769-778. (10.1177/0146167208314871)

Maio, G. R., Haddock, G., Watt, S. E. and Hewstone, M. (2008). Implicit measures and applied contexts: an illustrative examination of antiracism advertising. In: Petty, R., Fazio, R. and Brinol, P. eds. Attitudes: insights from the new wave of implicit measures. New York: Psychology Press, pp. 327-357.

Maio, G. R., Thomas, G., Fincham, F. D. and Carnelley, K. B. (2008). Unraveling the role of forgiveness in family relationshipsJournal of Personality and Social Psychology, 94(2), 307-319. (10.1037/0022-3514.94.2.307)

Thomas, G. and Maio, G. R. (2008). Man, I Feel Like a Woman: When and How Gender-Role Motivation Helps Mind-ReadingJournal of Personality and Social Psychology, 95(5), 1165-1179. (10.1037/a0013067)

Xenias, D., Greenland, K. and Maio, G. R. (2008). Psychophysiological correlates of intergroup anxiety. Presented at: 15th General Meeting of the European Association of Experimental Social Psychology (EAESP), Opatija, Croatia, 10-14 June 2008.

Online publications

Full list of publications

2015

Maio, G. R. (2015). The psychology of human values. European Monographs in Social Psychology. London: Psychology Press.

2013

Evans, L., Maio, G. R., Corner, A. J., Hodgetts, C. J., Ahmed, S. and Hahn, U. (2013). Self-Interest and pro-environmental behaviour [Letter]Nature Climate Change, 3(2), 122-125. (10.1038/nclimate1662)

Gebauer, J. E., Maio, G. R. and Pakizeh, A. (2013). Feeling Torn When Everything Seems Right: Semantic Incongruence Causes Felt AmbivalencePersonality and Social Psychology Bulletin, 39(6), 777-791. (10.1177/0146167213481679) pdf

2012

Appel, M., Gnambs, T. and Maio, G. R. (2012). A Short Measure of the Need for AffectJournal of Personality Assessment, 94(4), 418-426. (10.1080/00223891.2012.666921)

Gebauer, J. E., Sedikides, C., Verplanken, B. and Maio, G. R. (2012). Communal narcissismJournal of Personality and Social Psychology, 103(5), 854-878. (10.1037/a0029629 )

Gebauer, J. E. and Maio, G. R. (2012). The Need to Belong Can Motivate Belief in GodJournal of Personality, 80(2), 465-501. (10.1111/j.1467-6494.2011.00730.x)

Greenland, K., Xenias, D. and Maio, G. R. (2012). Intergroup anxiety from the self and other: evidence from self-report, physiological effects, and real interactionsEuropean Journal of Social Psychology, 42(2), 150-163. (10.1002/ejsp.867)

Haddock, G. and Maio, G. R. (2012). Attitudes. In: Hewstone, M., Stroebe, W. and Jonas, K. eds. An Introduction to Social Psychology (5th ed.). London: Blackwell, pp. 171-200.

Haddock, G. and Maio, G. R. (2012). The Psychology of Attitudes (4 volume set). London: Sage.

Maio, G. R., Olson, J. M. and Cheung, I. (2012). Attitudes in social behavior. In: Weiner, I., Tennen, H. and Suls, J. eds. Personality and Social Psychology (2nd ed.). Chichester: Wiley, pp. 275-304.

2011

Maio, G. R. (2011). Don’t mind the gap between values and action. Discussion Paper. Common Cause, Available at: http://valuesandframes.org/download/briefings/Value-Action%20Gap%20|%20Common%20Cause%20Briefing.pdf

Maio, G. R. (2011). Why the famous value-action gap is smaller than you think [Blog entry]Green Alliance Blog, 2011(8 Aug)

Schermer, J. A., Vernon, P. A., Maio, G. R. and Jang, K. L. (2011). A Behavior Genetic Study of the Connection Between Social Values and PersonalityTwin Research and Human Genetics, 14(3), 233-239. (10.1375/twin.14.3.233) pdf

Sedek, G., Piber-Dabrowska, K., Maio, G. R. and Von Hecker, U. (2011). Individual differences in prejudice and associative versus rule-based forms of transitive reasoningEuropean Journal of Social Psychology, 41(7), 853-865. (10.1002/ejsp.830)

2010

Maio, G. R., Haddock, G., Spears, R. and Manstead, A. S. R. (2010). Attitudes and intergroup relations. In: Dovidio, J. et al. eds. SAGE Handbook of Prejudice, Stereotyping and Discrimination. London: Sage, pp. 261-275.

Maio, G. R. (2010). Mental representations of social values. In: Zanna, M. ed. Advances in Experimental Social Psychology, Vol 42. Amsterdam: Elsevier, pp. 1-43. (10.1016/S0065-2601(10)42001-8)

Maio, G. R. and Haddock, G. (2010). The psychology of attitudes and attitude change. SAGE Social Psychology Program. London: Sage.

Souchon, N., Cabagno, G., Traclet, A., Dosseville, F., Livingstone, A. G., Jones, M. and Maio, G. R. (2010). Referees' Decision-making and Player Gender: The Moderating Role of the Type of SituationJournal of Applied Sport Psychology, 22(1), 1-16. (10.1080/10413200903250476)

Xenias, D., Greenland, K. and Maio, G. R. (2010). An investigation on promotion focus intervention for intergroup anxiety. Presented at: BPS Social Psychology Section Annual Conference, Winchester, UK, 7-9 September 2010.

2009

Cuddy, A. et al. (2009). Stereotype content model across cultures: towards universal similarities and some differencesBritish Journal of Social Psychology, 48(1), 1-33. (10.1348/014466608X314935)

Luke, M. A. and Maio, G. R. (2009). Oh the humanity! Humanity-esteem and its social importanceJournal of Research in Personality, 43(4), 586-601. (10.1016/j.jrp.2009.03.001)

Maio, G. R., Hahn, U., Frost, J. M. and Cheung, W. (2009). Applying the value of equality unequally: Effects of value instantiations that vary in typicalityJournal of Personality and Social Psychology, 97(4), 598-614. (10.1037/a0016683)

Maio, G. R., Pakizeh, A., Cheung, W. and Rees, K. J. (2009). Changing, priming, and acting on values: Effects via motivational relations in a circular modelJournal of Personality and Social Psychology, 97(4), 699-715. (10.1037/a0016420)

Souchon, N., Cabagno, G., Rascle, O., Traclet, A., Dosseville, F. and Maio, G. R. (2009). Referees' Decision Making about Transgressions: The Influence of Player Gender at the Highest National LevelPsychology of Women Quarterly, 33(4), 445-452. (10.1111/j.1471-6402.2009.01522.x)

Souchon, N., Cabagno, G., Traclet, A., Trouilloud, D. and Maio, G. R. (2009). Referees' use of heuristics: The moderating impact of standard of competitionJournal of Sports Sciences, 27(7), 695-700. (10.1080/02640410902874729)

Watt, S. E., Maio, G. R., Haddock, G. and Johnson, B. T. (2009). Attitude functions in persuasion: matching, involvement, self-affirmation, and hierarchy. In: Crano, W. and Prislin, R. eds. Attitudes and persuasion. New York: Psychology Press, pp. 189-213.

2008

Gebauer, J. E., Riketta, M., Broemer, P. and Maio, G. R. (2008). "How much do you like your name?" An implicit measure of global self-esteemJournal of Experimental Social Psychology, 44(5), 1346-1354. (10.1016/j.jesp.2008.03.016 )

Gebauer, J. E., Riketta, M., Broemer, P. and Maio, G. R. (2008). Pleasure and pressure based prosocial motivation: Divergent relations to subjective well-beingJournal of Research in Personality, 42(2), 399-420. (10.1016/j.jrp.2007.07.002 )

Haddock, G. and Maio, G. R. (2008). Attitudes: content, structure and functions. In: Hewstone, M., Stroebe, W. and Jonas, K. eds. Introduction to social psychology: a European perspective. 4th ed.. Oxford: Blackwell, pp. 112-133.

Haddock, G., Maio, G. R., Arnold, K. and Huskinson, T. (2008). Should persuasion be affective or cognitive? The moderating effects of need for affect and need for cognitionPersonality and Social Psychology Bulletin, 34(6), 769-778. (10.1177/0146167208314871)

Maio, G. R., Haddock, G., Watt, S. E. and Hewstone, M. (2008). Implicit measures and applied contexts: an illustrative examination of antiracism advertising. In: Petty, R., Fazio, R. and Brinol, P. eds. Attitudes: insights from the new wave of implicit measures. New York: Psychology Press, pp. 327-357.

Maio, G. R., Thomas, G., Fincham, F. D. and Carnelley, K. B. (2008). Unraveling the role of forgiveness in family relationshipsJournal of Personality and Social Psychology, 94(2), 307-319. (10.1037/0022-3514.94.2.307)

Thomas, G. and Maio, G. R. (2008). Man, I Feel Like a Woman: When and How Gender-Role Motivation Helps Mind-ReadingJournal of Personality and Social Psychology, 95(5), 1165-1179. (10.1037/a0013067)

Xenias, D., Greenland, K. and Maio, G. R. (2008). Psychophysiological correlates of intergroup anxiety. Presented at: 15th General Meeting of the European Association of Experimental Social Psychology (EAESP), Opatija, Croatia, 10-14 June 2008.

2007

Haddock, G. and Maio, G. R. (2007). Attitude-behavior consistency. In: Baumeister, R. and Vohs, K. eds. Encyclopedia of Social Psychology, Vol 1. Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage, pp. 59-61.

Haddock, G. and Maio, G. R. (2007). Attitudes. In: Baumeister, R. and Vohs, K. eds. Encyclopedia of Social Psychology, Vol 1. Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage, pp. 67-69.

Maio, G. R. and Haddock, G. (2007). Attitude change. In: Kruglanski, A. and Higgins, E. eds. Social Psychology: Handbook of Basic Principles (2nd ed.). New York, NY: Guilford Press, pp. 565-586.

Maio, G. R., Verplanken, B., Manstead, A. S. R., Stroebe, W., Abraham, C., Sheeran, P. and Conner, M. (2007). Social Psychological Factors in Lifestyle Change and Their Relevance to PolicySocial Issues and Policy Review, 1(1), 99-137. (10.1111/j.1751-2409.2007.00005.x)

Maio, G. R., Haddock, G. and Penny, H. L. (2007). Social psychological factors in tackling obesityObesity Reviews, 8(S1), 123-125. (10.1111/j.1467-789X.2007.00330.x)

Maio, G. R. and Thomas, G. M. (2007). The epistemic-teleologic model of deliberate self-persuasionPersonality and Social Psychology Review, 11(1), 46-67. (10.1177/1088868306294589)

Pakizeh, A., Gebauer, J. E. and Maio, G. R. (2007). Basic human values: inter-value structure in memoryJournal of Experimental Social Psychology, 43(3), 458-465. (10.1016/j.jesp.2006.04.007)

Tam, T., Hewstone, M., Cairns, E., Tausch, N., Maio, G. R. and Kenworthy, J. (2007). The impact of intergroup emotions on forgiveness in Northern IrelandGroup Processes & Intergroup Relations, 10(1), 119-136. (10.1177/1368430207071345 )

2006

Bernard, M. M., Gebauer, J. E. and Maio, G. R. (2006). Cultural estrangement: The role of personal and societal value discrepanciesPersonality and Social Psychology Bulletin, 32(1), 78-92. (10.1177/0146167205279908)

2005

Ashton, M. C., Danso, H. A., Maio, G. R., Esses, V. M., Bond, M. H. and Keung, D. K. Y. (2005). Two dimensions of political attitudes and their individual difference correlates: A cross-cultural perspective. Presented at: 10th Ontario Symposium on Personality and Social Psychology, London, Ontario, Canada, 2002.

Esses, V. M. and Maio, G. R. (2005). Expanding the assessment of attitude components and structure: the benefits of open-ended measures. In: Stroebe, W. and Hewstone, M. eds. European Review of Social Psychology, Vol 12. Chichester: Wiley-Blackwell, pp. 71-101. (10.1002/0470013478.ch3)

Hahn, U., Frost, J. M. and Maio, G. R. (2005). What's in a heuristic? Commentary on Sunstein, C.Behavioral and Brain Sciences, 28(4), 551-552. (10.1017/S0140525X05320097) pdf

Hoyt, W. T., Fincham, F. D., McCullough, M. E., Maio, G. R. and Davila, J. (2005). Responses to interpersonal transgressions in families: Forgivingness, forgivability, and relationship-specific effectsJournal of Personality and Social Psychology, 89(3), 375-394. (10.1037/0022-3514.89.3.375)

Johnson, B. T., Maio, G. R. and Smith-McLallen, A. (2005). Communication and attitude change: causes, processes, and effects. In: Albarracin, D., Johnson, B. and Zanna, M. eds. The Handbook of Attitudes . Mahwah, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum, pp. 617-669.

Maio, G. R. and Augoustinos, M. (2005). Attitudes, attributions and social cognition. In: Hewstone, M., Fincham, F. and Foster, J. eds. Psychology. Malden, MA: Blackwell, pp. 360-382.

2004

(2004). Contemporary perspectives on the psychology of attitudes. Hove: Psychology Press.

Luke, M. A., Maio, G. R. and Carnelley, K. B. (2004). Attachment models of the self and others: Relations with self-esteem, humanity-esteem, and parental treatmentPersonal Relationships, 11(3), 281-303. (10.1111/j.1475-6811.2004.00083.x)

Maio, G. R. and Haddock, G. (2004). An introduction and overview. In: Haddock, G. and Maio, G. eds. Contemporary Perspectives on the Psychology of Attitudes. Hove: Psychology Press, pp. 1-5.

Maio, G. R., Esses, V. M., Arnold, K. H. and Olson, J. M. (2004). The function-structure model of attitudes: Incorporating the need for affect. In: Haddock, G. and Maio, G. eds. Contemporary Perspectives on the Psychology of Attitudes. Hove: Psychology Press, pp. 9-34.

Maio, G. R. and Haddock, G. (2004). Theories of attitude: creating a witches' brew. In: Haddock, G. and Maio, G. eds. Contemporary Perspectives on the Psychology of Attitudes. Hove: Psychology Press, pp. 425-453.

2003

Bernard, M., Maio, G. R. and Olson, J. M. (2003). Effects of introspection about reasons for values: Extending research on values-as-truismsSocial Cognition, 21(1), 1-25. (10.1521/soco.21.1.1.21193)

Bernard, M. M., Maio, G. R. and Olson, J. M. (2003). The vulnerability of values to attack: inoculation of values and value-relevant attitudesPersonality and Social Psychology Bulletin, 29(1), 63-75. (10.1177/0146167202238372)

Maio, G. R., Fincham, F. D., Regalia, C. and Paleri, G. (2003). Ambivalence and attachment in family relationships. In: Pillemer, K. and Lüscher, K. eds. Intergenerational Ambivalences: New Perspectives on Parent-child Relations in Later Life. Amsterdam: Elsevier/JAI, pp. 285-312. (10.1016/S1530-3535(03)04012-3)

Maio, G. R., Olson, J. M., Bernard, M. and Luke, M. A. (2003). Ideologies, values, attitudes, and behavior. In: DeLamater, J. ed. Handbook of Social Psychology . New York, NY: Kluwer Academic/Plenum Pub, pp. 283-308. (10.1007/0-387-36921-X_12)

Maio, G. R., Willis, H. J., Hewstone, M. and Esses, V. M. (2003). Intergroup attitudes and attitudes towards devolution: field and laboratory experimentsBritish Journal of Social Psychology, 42(4), 477-493. (10.1348/014466603322595239)

Olson, J. M. and Maio, G. R. (2003). Attitudes in social behavior. In: Millon, T., Lerner, M. and Weiner, I. eds. Handbook of Psychology: Volume 5, Personality and Social Psychology. Hoboken, NJ: Wiley, pp. 299-325.

2002

Maio, G. R. (2002). Values - Truth and MeaningThe Psychologist, 15(6), 296-299.

2001

Hodson, G., Maio, G. R. and Esses, V. M. (2001). The role of attitudinal ambivalence in susceptibility to consensus informationBasic and Applied Social Psychology, 23(3), 197-205. (10.1207/S15324834BASP2303_6)

Maio, G. R., Olson, J. M., Allen, L. and Bernard, M. (2001). Addressing discrepancies between values and behavior: The motivating effect of reasonsJournal of Experimental Social Psychology, 37(2), 104-117. (10.1006/jesp.2000.1436)

Maio, G. R., Greenland, K., Bernard, M. and Esses, V. M. (2001). Effects of intergroup ambivalence on information processing: The role of physiological arousalGroup Processes & Intergroup Relations, 4(4), 355-372. (10.1177/1368430201004004005)

Maio, G. R. and Esses, V. M. (2001). The need for affect: Individual differences in the motivation to approach or avoid emotionsJournal of Personality, 69(4), 583-616. (10.1111/1467-6494.694156)

2000

(2000). Why we evaluate: functions of attitudes. Mahwah, N.J.: Psychology Press (Taylor and Francis Group).

Maio, G. R., Fincham, F. D. and Lycett, E. J. (2000). Attitudinal ambivalence toward parents and attachment stylePersonality and Social Psychology Bulletin, 26(12), 1451-1464. (10.1177/01461672002612001)

Maio, G. R. and Olson, J. M. (2000). Emergent themes and potential approaches to attitude function: The function-structure model of attitudes. In: Maio, G. and Olson, J. eds. Why We Evaluate: Functions of Attitudes. Mahwah, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum, pp. 417-442.

Maio, G. R., Esses, V. M. and Bell, D. W. (2000). Examining conflict between components of attitudes: Ambivalence and inconsistency are distinct constructsCanadian Journal of Behavioural Science/Revue canadienne des sciences du comportement, 32(1), 58-70. (10.1037/h0087101)

Maio, G. R. and Olson, J. M. (2000). Preface. In: Maio, G. and Olson, J. eds. Why We Evaluate: Functions of Attitudes. Mahwah, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum, pp. vii-xi.

Maio, G. R. and Olson, J. M. (2000). What is a "value-expressive" attitude?. In: Maio, G. and Olson, J. eds. Why We Evaluate: Functions of Attitudes. Mahwah, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum, pp. 249-270.

1999

Olson, J. M., Maio, G. R. and Hobden, K. L. (1999). The (null) effects of exposure to disparagement humor on stereotypes and attitudesHumor - International Journal of Humor Research, 12(2), 195-219. (10.1515/humr.1999.12.2.195)

1998

Maio, G. R. and Olson, J. M. (1998). Attitude dissimulation and persuasionJournal of Experimental Social Psychology, 34(2), 182-201. (10.1006/jesp.1997.1348)

Maio, G. R. and Esses, V. M. (1998). The social consequences of affirmative action: Deleterious effects on perceptions of groupsPersonality and Social Psychology Bulletin, 24(1), 65-74. (10.1177/0146167298241005)

Maio, G. R. and Olson, J. M. (1998). Values as truisms: Evidence and implicationsJournal of Personality and Social Psychology, 74(2), 294-311.

1997

Maio, G. R., Olson, J. M. and Bush, J. E. (1997). Telling jokes that disparage social groups: Effects on the joke teller's stereotypesJournal of Applied Social Psychology, 27(22), 1986-2000. (10.1111/j.1559-1816.1997.tb01636.x)

1996

Bell, D. W., Esses, V. M. and Maio, G. R. (1996). The utility of open-ended measures to assess intergroup ambivalenceCanadian Journal of Behavioural Science/Revue canadienne des sciences du comportement, 28(1), 12-18. (10.1037/0008-400X.28.1.12)

Esses, V. M., Bell, D. W. and Maio, G. R. (1996). Intergroup ambivalence: Assessment and consequences [Abstract]International Journal of Psychology, 31(3-4), 1636.

Maio, G. R., Bell, D. W. and Esses, V. M. (1996). Ambivalence and persuasion: The processing of messages about immigrant groupsJournal of Experimental Social Psychology, 32(6), 513-536. (10.1006/jesp.1996.0023)

Maio, G. R., Roese, N. J., Seligman, C. and Katz, A. (1996). Rankings, ratings, and the measurement of values: evidence for the superior validity of ratingsBasic and Applied Social Psychology, 18(2), 171-181. (10.1207/s15324834basp1802_4)

1995

Maio, G. R. and Olsen, J. M. (1995). Involvement and persuasion: Evidence for different types of involvementCanadian Journal of Behavioural Science/Revue canadienne des sciences du comportement, 27(1), 64-78. (10.1037/008-400X.27.1.64)

Maio, G. R. and Olson, J. M. (1995). Relations between Values, Attitudes, and Behavioral Intentions: The Moderating Role of Attitude FunctionJournal of Experimental Social Psychology, 31(3), 266-285. (10.1006/jesp.1995.1013)

Maio, G. R. and Olson, J. M. (1995). The Effect of Attitude Dissimulation on Attitude AccessibilitySocial Cognition, 13(2), 127-144. (10.1521/soco.1995.13.2.127)

Research topics and related papers

Numerous psychological theories ascribe vital roles to social values, but define them vaguely. Examples of prominent social values include equality, freedom, and helpfulness; they are abstract ideals that people consider to be important guiding principles in their lives. The abstract nature of values gives them an amazing ability to make diverse situations look similar, which can help us decide how to react to the tremendous variety of situations we encounter. But this abstract nature makes their actual psychological functioning very complex. Research in my lab has found that these complexities can be tackled by conceptualizing values as mental representations that operate at three levels: a system level, (abstract) value level, and an instantiation level (Maio, 2010).

At the level of the value system, values reflect motivational tensions described within Schwartz’s (1992) circular model of values. According to this model, people experience tension between values that promote personal well-being (e.g., achievement, power) and values that focus on the welfare of others (e.g., helpfulness, forgiveness) ; people also experience tension between values that that promote conservation of the status quo (e.g., national security, tradition) and values that pursue intellectual and emotional interests in novel directions (e.g., creativity, freedom). Our research has highlighted important implications of this model for understanding the accessibility of values from memory, judgments of political rhetoric, feelings of ambivalence toward others, value change, and effects of value priming on behaviour.

For example, one experiment tested whether these value tensions affect curiosity (Maio, Pakizeh, Gebauer, & Cheung, 2009. Participants were asked to study tables of words, some of which were self-direction-promoting values, stimulation-seeking values, or mere objects of clothing (as a control task). Participants then responded to 48 quiz questions about various topics, including history, movies, sports, music, science, geography, celebrities, politics, literature, myths, and legend. After each response, participants indicated whether they knew the answer and whether they would like to receive further information about the answer. Analyses indicated that participants who had previously thought briefly about self-direction values exhibited greater curiosity than participants who had thought about security values, who exhibited less curiosity than participants in the control group. This effect supports the hypothesis that an underlying motivational conflict between self-direction and security values affects curiosity-driven behavior, and it is congruent with results from many similar experiments examining different values and actions (Maio et al., 2009).

At the level of single abstract values, values are more strongly connected to feelings than to past behavior or beliefs, and the type of emotion depends on the values’ roles as ideal versus ought self-guides. Another way of putting this is that values function as truisms (Maio & Olson, 1998): they are so widely shared that people never feel a need to defend them. As a result, we rarely bother to form arguments supporting them. Instead, we build a strong emotional attachment to values, and the exact emotions connected to a particular value depend on whether we regard a value as something we would ideally follow or as something we ought to follow. This feature of values at an abstract level may help to explain why people often fail to perform actions that promote their values when situations press against values. This is one question that Dr. Katy Tapper, Dr. Geoff Haddock, and I are exploring in a current ESRC-funded project looking at people’s struggle to live healthily (Lifestyle change: Values and volition).

At the level of value instantiations, the way in which people have previously thought about instantiating values in specific, concrete situations affects their subsequent perceptual readiness to detect and apply the value. For example, in a series of experiments, participants who were asked to think about concrete examples of the importance of equality subsequently exhibited less discrimination against people from another (arbitrarily designated) group than participants who had merely thought about equality at an abstract level or who had thought about atypical (but equally valid) examples of the importance of equality (Maio, Hahn, Frost, and Cheung, 2009). The prior instantiations did not cause equality to change in importance, but they did affect the process of applying the abstract value.

All three levels of value representation are important for addressing key puzzles in the role of values in social psychological processes, but they also reveal pernicious difficulties that would emerge if we try to improve mutual understanding by finding common or shared values between people. This task may seem impossible because of the emotional tensions between values, the reliance on strong emotions, and the diverse ways of instantiating them. Yet, this goal remains an important project. Indeed, the United Nations claims this goal as one of its founding aims: “The United Nations must provide a framework of shared values and understanding . . .” (Kofi Anan’s Speech to the United Nations General Assembly, New York, September 24, 2001).

One potential long-term solution to this problem may emerge if start gaining a lot more knowledge about one value-laden interest that humans have had in common throughout our evolution: the protection of children. Societies wouldn’t survive if they didn’t love their children, make sacrifices for them, and evolve a set of moral principles that can help to keep children safe until adulthood. But this does not mean that attitudes toward children are uniformly positive or that they immediately provide a foundation for developing common values. The situation is more complicated than this.

For example, in a recent report, the United Nations singled out the UK for failing to address legal and social shortcomings in the treatment of children (UN Committee on the Rights of the Child, September, 2008). Perhaps this is not a coincidence, given that children are institutionally segregated from adults and have little voice in decision processes. Indeed, we have obtained evidence that people’s attitudes toward children are ambivalent, particularly when implicit measures of attitude are utilized (Economic and Social Research Council Project: The detection of ambivalence toward children using implicit measures). (These measures tend to detect spontaneous evaluations before people can cognitively censor them.) We are currently pursuing several interesting questions about the role of children in adult social cognition – questions that may eventually help to discover social values priorities that bridge gaps between diverse groups.

Funding

Economic and Social Research Council (2009-2012). Lifestyle change: Values and volition.

Research group

Caroline Leygue (Research Associate, Psychology, Cardiff University)
Gabriella Jiga-Boy (Research Associate, Psychology, Swansea University)
Wing-yee Cheung (PhD Student, Psychology, Cardiff University)
Alex Nolan
(PhD Student, Psychology, Cardiff University)
Colin Foad (PhD Student, Psychology, Cardiff University)

Research collaborators

Geoff Haddock (Psychology, Cardiff University)
Dimitrios Xenias (Psychology, Cardiff University)
Tony Manstead (Psychology, Cardiff University)
Russell Spears (Psychology, Cardiff University)
Ulrike Hahn (Psychology, Cardiff University)
Ulrich von Hecker
(Psychology, Cardiff University)
Lorraine Whitmarsh
(Psychology, Cardiff University)
Adam Corner (Psychology, Cardiff University)
Elspeth Webb (Medicine, Cardiff University)
Katy Tapper (Human Sciences, Swansea University)
Katy Greenland (Social Sciences, Cardiff University)
Johan Karremans (Psychology, Radboud University Nijmegen)
Prof. Frank D. Fincham (Psychology, Florida State University)
Dr. Kathy Carnelley (Psychology, Southampton University)
Geoff Thomas (Psychology, Aston University)
Nicolas Souchon (Paris 10, laboratoire CeRSM)

Postgraduate research interests

I am interested in social values (e.g., freedom, equality, helpfulness), attitudes, and emotional processes. My two biggest interests at the moment are projects examining psychological connections between values and behaviour and adult mental representations of children.

If you are interested in applying for a PhD, or for further information regarding my postgraduate research, please contact me directly (contact details available on the 'Overview' page), or submit a formal application here.

Current students

Colin Foad
Paul Hanel
Eleni Lemonaki
Carey Wallace
George Zacharopolous
Gabriel Lins Coelho
Katia Vione

Previous students

Alex Nolan
Dr Mark Bernard (Birmingham University)
Dr Karin Buschenfeld (Community Mental Health Team for Older People in South Gloucestershire)
Dr Wing-yee Cheung (School of Psychology, University of Southampton)
Dr Maria Doria (Medicine, Health Policy and Practice, University of East Anglia)
Dr John-Mark Frost
(Office for National Statistics)
Dr Jochen Gebauer (Psychology, University of Southampton)
Dr Michelle Luke
(School of Management, University of Southampton)
Dr Ali Pakizeh
(Vice Chancellor for Education Affairs and Higher Education, Persian Gulf University)
Dr Kerry Rees
(Natural and Social Sciences, University of Gloucestershire)

Undergraduate education

1991: Honours BSc, York University

Postgraduate education

1993: MA, Western University
1997: PhD, Western University

Awards/external committees

2014-2016: Member of ESRC Grant Awards Panel
2014-2016: Associate Editor for Frontiers in Personality and Social Psychology
2013: Fellow of Society for Personality and Social Psychology.
2012-2013: Member of ESRC Future Research Leaders Commissioning Panel
2011-2012: Netherlands Organization for Scientific Research (NWO).  Advisory Committee for Behavioral Sciences and Education, TOP Grants
2011-2012: Society for Personality and Social Psychology. Chair of Committee for Media Achievement and Media Prize Awards
2010-2011: European Association for Experimental Social Psychology. Program Sub-Chair for General Meeting in Stockholm, Sweden.
2010-2014: University College London. External Examiner for MSc in Social Cognition
2010: Expert Reviewer for Change4Life: One Year On
2008-2009: Member of Expert Reviewer Group for the Change4Life Marketing Programme, Department of Health
2006-2008: Senior Associate Editor, Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin
2006-2008: Editorial Board for the Group Process and Intergroup Relations
2006-2007: Psychology Expert for the Foresight Tacking Obesities Project, Department of Trade and Innovation
2005: Associate Editor, Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin
2002-2005: Editorial Board for the Group Process and Intergroup Relations
2002-2004: Editorial Board for the European Journal of Social Psychology
2000-2002: Editorial Board for the Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin
2001: British Psychological Society Spearman Medal
1999-2005: Editorial Board for the British Journal of Social Psychology
1997: Canadian Governor-General’s Gold Medal, University of Western Ontario
1993-1997: Social Sciences and Humanities Research Council Doctoral Fellowship
1996: American Psychological Association Student Travel Award
1996: American Psychological Association Dissertation Research Award
1995-1996: University of Western Ontario Graduate Tuition Scholarship
1993-1994: University of Western Ontario Doctoral Studies Scholarship
1991-1992: Ontario Graduate Scholarships
1991: York University Departmental Essay Prize
1991: University of Western Ontario Graduate Studies Scholarship
1990: Natural Science and Engineering Research Council Summer Research Fellowship
1987-1991: York University Full-Tuition Scholarships

Employment

2006: Elected to Fellowship of the Society of Experimental Social Psychology
2004 - Present: Professor, Psychology, Cardiff University
2000-2004: Reader, Psychology, Cardiff University
2000: Senior Lecturer, Psychology, Cardiff University
1997-1999: Lecturer, Psychology, Cardiff University
1996: Course Instructor, Part-time and Continuing Education, University of Western Ontario
1991-1995: Teaching Assistant, Psychology, University of Western Ontario
1990: Research Assistant, Biology, York University
1988: Research Assistant, Psychology, York University

Professional Affiliations

American Psychological Society
Centre for Research on the Self and Identity (International Associate)
European Association of Social Psychology
International Society of Self and Identity
Society of Experimental Social Psychology
Society for Personality and Social Psychology
Social Psychology Network